Electrochemical strategies for the label-free detection of amino acids, peptides and proteins
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Electrochemical methods for the detection of amino acids, peptides, and proteins in a variety of media are reviewed. Label-free strategies in which the detection is based on the inherent electrochemical properties of the analyte are discussed. Various processes such as direct or mediated (in solution or immobilised) redox processes and interfacial ion transfers have been employed for the electrochemical detection and determination of the target analytes. The various methods covered encompass voltammetry at uncoated and modified electrodes and at immiscible liquid–liquid interfaces, potentiometry at polymer membrane electrodes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The determination of the target analytes in complex biological matrices is discussed. The various approaches highlighted here illustrate the rich capabilities of electrochemical methods as simple, low-cost, sensitive tools for the determination of these important biological analytes at trace and ultra-trace levels
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