Effect of the Carbon Surface Layer Chemistry on Benzene Adsorption from the Vapor Phase and from Dilute Aqueous Solutions
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Wepresent a complex study of benzene adsorption on chemically modified commercial activated carbons. The porosity of studied carbons is almost the same, whereas the chemical composition and the acid-base properties of surface layers differ drastically from amphoteric (initial de-ashed carbon D43/1, Carbo-Tech, Essen, Germany) and acidic (carbon modified with concentrated HNO3 and fuming H2SO4) to strongly basic (carbon modified with gaseousNH3). Benzene adsorption isotherms measured from aqueous solution at three temperatures (298, 313, and 323 K) and at the neutral pH level are reported. They are supported by studies of water and benzene adsorption from the gaseous phase (volumetric and calorimetric data) and the data of benzene temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Moreover, the data of the enthalpy of immersion in water and benzene are also presented. Obtained data of benzene adsorption from the gaseous phase are approximated by applying the method of Nguyen and Do (ND) and the Dubinin-Astakhov (DA) equation. The data of adsorption from solution are described by the hybrid DA-Freundlich (DA-F) model. We show that there are similarities in the mechanisms of benzene adsorption from the gaseous phase and from aqueous solutions and that the pore-blocking effect is the main stage of the adsorption mechanism. This effect strongly depends on the polarity of the carbon surface. The larger the ratio of the enthalpy of carbon immersion in water to the enthalpy of immersion in benzene, the larger the reduction in adsorption from solution, compared to that in the gaseous phase, that is observed.
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