Modern Determination of Vertical Deflections Using Digital Zenith Cameras
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At the beginning of the 21st century, a significant technological change took place in geodetic astronomy. In Zurich and Hannover, digital zenith camera systems were developed based on digital imaging sensors (charge-coupled device) that strongly improved the degree of automation, efficiency, and accuracy of the observation of the direction of the plumb line and its vertical deflection. This paper describes the instrumental design of the new digital zenith camera systems and gives an overview of the data processing with focus on the models used for astrometric data reduction and tilt correction. Results of frequently repeated observations of vertical deflections and comparison measurements show an accuracy of vertical deflection measurements of better than 0.1 arc sec. Application examples for vertical deflection data from zenith camera observations, such as the high-precision local gravity field determination in engineering projects and gravity field validation are summarized.
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The Digital Zenith Camera TZK2-D - A Modern High-Precision Geodetic Instrument for Automatic Geographic Positioning in Real-TimeHirt, Christian (2003)The digital zenith camera TZK2-D is a geodetic state-of-the-artinstrumentation for determining geographic longitude and latitudefully automatically. Using CCD technology for imaging stars anda GPS-receiver for precise ...
High-Resolution Local Gravity Field Determination at the Sub-Millimeter Level using a Digital Zenith Camera SystemHirt, Christian; Seeber, G. (2005)During the last years the observation of vertical deflections experienced a revival due to the development of state-of-the-art Digital Zenith Camera Systems in Zurich and Hanover. Other than analogue instruments of geodetic ...
On the Accuracy of Vertical Deflection Measurements Using the High-Precision Digital Zenith Camera System TZK2-DHirt, Christian; Reese, B.; Enslin, H. (2004)In this paper the accuracy of vertical deflections provided by the Digital Zenith Camera System TZK2-D is comprehensively analysed. During 2003 and 2004 various vertical deflections have been measured repeatedly at ...