The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Attributable to Major Modifiable Risk Factors in Indonesia
MetadataShow full item record
Background: In Indonesia, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke are estimated to cause more than 470000 deaths annually. In order to inform primary prevention policies, we estimated the sex- and age-specific burden of CHD and stroke attributable to five major and modifiable vascular risk factors: cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, elevated total cholesterol, and excess body weight. Methods: Population attributable risks for CHD and stroke attributable to these risk factors individually were calculated using summary statistics obtained for prevalence of each risk factor specific to sex and to two age categories (<55 and ≥ 55 years) from a national survey in Indonesia. Age- and sex-specific relative risks for CHD and stroke associated with each of the five risk factors were derived from prospective data from the Asia-Pacific region. Results: Hypertension was the leading vascular risk factor, explaining 20% – 25% of all CHD and 36% – 42% of all strokes in both sexes and approximately one-third of all CHD and half of all strokes across younger and older age groups alike. Smoking in men explained a substantial proportion of vascular events (25% of CHD and 17% of strokes). However, given that these risk factors are likely to be strongly correlated, these population attributable risk proportions are likely to be overestimates and require verification from future studies that are able to take into account correlation between risk factors. Conclusions: Implementation of effective population-based prevention strategies aimed at reducing levels of major cardiovascular risk factors, especially blood pressure, total cholesterol, and smoking prevalence among men, could reduce the growing burden of CVD in the Indonesian population.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Validity of self-reported versus hospital-coded diagnosis of stroke: A cross-sectional and longitudinal studyJamrozik, E.; Hyde, Z.; Alfonso, Helman; Flicker, L.; Almeida, O.; Yeap, B.; Norman, P.; Hankey, G.; Jamrozik, K. (2014)Background: Population-based studies, as well as clinicians, often rely on self-report and hospital records to obtain a history of stroke. This study aimed to compare the validity of the diagnosis of stroke by self-report ...
Dawson, L.P.; Cole, J.A.; Lancefield, T.F.; Ajani, A.E.; Andrianopoulos, N.; Thrift, A.G.; Clark, D.J.; Brennan, A.L.; Freeman, M.; O'Brien, J.; Sebastian, M.; Chan, W.; Shaw, J.A.; Dinh, D.; Reid, Christopher ; Duffy, S.J. (2020)© 2020 World Stroke Organization. Background: Stroke rates and risk factors may change as percutaneous coronary intervention practice evolves and no data are available comparing stroke incidence after percutaneous coronary ...
A comparative analysis of risk factors and stroke risk for Asian and non-Asian men: The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies CollaborationHyun, K.; Huxley, Rachel; Arima, H.; Woo, J.; Lam, T.; Ueshima, H.; Fang, X.; Peters, S.; Jee, S.; Giles, G.; Barzi, F.; Woodward, M. (2013)Background: The risk of stroke is high in men among both Asian and non-Asian populations, despite differences in risk factor profiles; whether risk factors act similarly in these populations is unknown. Aim: To study the ...