Chemicals in reverse osmosis-treated wastewater: occurrence, health risk and contribution to residual dissolved organic carbon
MetadataShow full item record
The quality and safety of reverse osmosis (RO)-treated secondary wastewater, for indirect The quality and safety of reverse osmosis (RO)-treated secondary wastewater, for indirect potable re-use, was assessed using a dataset of 375 chemicals measured in RO-treated wastewater. A screening health risk assessment indicated that four N-nitrosamines were of potential concern, although median concentrations of these chemicals were always below health values. The most frequently detected chemicals in RO-treated water were disinfection by-products, volatile organic compounds, metals and complexing agents, in contrast to many monitoring programs that focus on pharmaceuticals, personal care products and hormones. Frequent detections in RO-treated wastewater were most related to high concentrations in secondary wastewater, relative to limit of reporting, and the potential for chemicals to form or be added during the treatment process, rather than poor rejection by RO membranes. Between 3.7 and 10.7 µg/L of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in RO permeate could be attributed from chemicals detected on at least one occasion, with the majority of this total attributed to chemicals detected in less than 25% of samples. While chemicals below detection may contribute a significant component of DOC, it is likely that natural organic matter and soluble microbial products still contribute the majority of DOC to RO permeate. A high degree of safety is demonstrated for the use of RO-treated wastewater as an indirect source of potable water.
©IWA Publishing 2012. The definitive peer-reviewed and edited version of this article is published in Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology—AQUA. Vol 61 No 8 pp 494–505 2012. doi:10.2166/aqua.2012.047, and is available at www.iwapublishing.com.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Tang, J.; Busetti, Francesco; Charrois, Jeffrey; Escher, B. (2014)Removal of organic micropollutants from wastewater during secondary treatment followed by reverse osmosis and UV disinfection was evaluated by a combination of four in-vitro cell-based bioassays and chemical analysis of ...
Recycled water: potential health risks from volatile compounds and the use of 1,4-dichlorobenzene as a treatment performance indicatorRodriguez, C; Linge, Kathryn; Blair, P.; Busetti, Francesco; Devine, B.; Van Buynder, P.; Weinstein, P.; Cook, A. (2011)Characterisation of the concentrations and potential health risks of chemicals in recycled water is important if this source of water is to be safely used to supplement drinking water sources. This research was conducted ...
Busetti, Francky; Ruff, M.; Linge, Kathryn (2015)The results of a characterisation study of water samples collected from an Advanced Water Recycling Plant (AWRP) operating in Perth, Western Australia are presented. The AWRP treats secondary wastewater by ultrafiltration, ...