Investigation of deactivation mechanisms of a solid acid catalyst during esterification of the bio-oils from mallee biomass
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This study reports the deactivation mechanisms of the solid acid catalyst Amberlyst 70 during the esterification of bio-oils from mallee biomass and the methods for catalyst regeneration. The metal ions in bio-oil deactivated Amberlyst 70 via ion exchange with the hydrogen ions on/in catalyst, which changed structure of catalysts and reduced availability of acidic sites. N-containing organics reacted with the hydrogen ions on/in catalyst, forming neutral salts and resulting in complete catalyst deactivation. Polymers formed during the esterification of bio-oils deposited on/in catalyst, reducing the accessibility of catalytic sites. Washing with solvents could remove some adsorbed organics and restore some catalytic activity but not much. In comparison, ion exchange in a concentrated sulfuric acid removes most of metal ions and the N-containing organics and significantly improves the catalytic activity.
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Esterification of bio-oil from mallee (Eucalyptus loxophleba ssp. gratiae) leaves with a solid acid catalyst: Conversion of the cyclic ether and terpenoids into hydrocarbonsHu, Xun; Gunawan, Richard; Mourant, Daniel; Wang, Yi; Lievens, Caroline; Chaiwat, Weerawut; Wu, L.; Li, Chun-Zhu (2012)Bio-oil from pyrolysis of mallee (Eucalyptus loxophleba ssp. gratiae) leaves differs from that obtained with wood by its content of cyclic ethers, terpenoids and N-containing organic compounds. Upgrading of the leaf bio-oil ...
Gunawan, Richard; Li, X.; Larcher, Alfons; Hu, Xun; Mourant, Daniel; Chaiwat, Weerawut; Wu, Hongwei; Li, Chun-Zhu (2012)Acid-catalysed esterification converts organic acids in bio-oil into useful esters. However, the conditions to carry out esterification also promote the hydrolysis of anhydro-sugars in bio-oil. This paper reports the ...
Wu, L.; Hu, X.; Wang, S.; Mourant, D.; Song, Y.; Li, T.; Li, Chun-Zhu (2016)Coke formation during the esterification of bio-oil in alcohols and water over a solid acid catalyst Amberlyst 70 has been investigated. The amounts of coke formed from the acid-treatment of bio-oil in various alcohols ...