Large-Scale Total Water Storage and Water Flux Changes over the Arid and Semiarid Parts of the Middle East from GRACE and Reanalysis Products
MetadataShow full item record
© 2016 The Author(s). Previous studies indicate that water storage over a large part of the Middle East has been decreased over the last decade. Variability in the total (hydrological) water flux (TWF, i.e., precipitation minus evapotranspiration minus runoff) and water storage changes of the Tigris–Euphrates river basin and Iran’s six major basins (Khazar, Persian, Urmia, Markazi, Hamun, and Sarakhs) over 2003–2013 is assessed in this study. Our investigation is performed based on the TWF that are estimated as temporal derivatives of terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) products and those from the reanalysis products of ERA-Interim and MERRA-Land. An inversion approach is applied to consistently estimate the spatio-temporal changes of soil moisture and groundwater storage compartments of the seven basins during the study period from GRACE TWS, altimetry, and land surface model products. The influence of TWF trends on separated water storage compartments is then explored. Our results, estimated as basin averages, indicate negative trends in the maximums of TWF peaks that reach up to -5.2 and -2.6 (mm/month/year) over 2003–2013, respectively, for the Urmia and Tigris–Euphrates basins, which are most likely due to the reported meteorological drought. Maximum amplitudes of the soil moisture compartment exhibit negative trends of -11.1, -6.6, -6.1, -4.8, -4.7, -3.8, and -1.2 (mm/year) for Urmia, Tigris–Euphrates, Khazar, Persian, Markazi, Sarakhs, and Hamun basins, respectively. Strong groundwater storage decrease is found, respectively, within the Khazar -8.6 (mm/year) and Sarakhs -7.0 (mm/year) basins. The magnitude of water storage decline in the Urmia and Tigris–Euphrates basins is found to be bigger than the decrease in the monthly accumulated TWF indicating a contribution of human water use, as well as surface and groundwater flow to the storage decline over the study area.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Understanding the association between climate variability and the Nile's water level fluctuations and water storage changes during 1992–2016Khaki, M.; Awange, Joseph; Forootan, E.; Kuhn, Michael (2018)© 2018 Elsevier B.V. With the construction of the largest dam in Africa, the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) along the Blue Nile, the Nile is back in the news. This, combined with Bujagali Dam on the White Nile are ...
A two-update ensemble Kalman filter for land hydrological data assimilation with an uncertain constraintKhaki, M.; Ait-El-Fquih, B.; Hoteit, I.; Forootan, E.; Awange, Joseph; Kuhn, Michael (2017)Â© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Assimilating Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) data into land hydrological models provides a valuable opportunity to improve the modelsâ€™ forecasts and increases our knowledge of ...
Understanding the decline of water storage across the Ramser-Lake Naivasha using satellite-based methodsAwange, Joseph; Forootan, E.; Kusche, J.; Kiema, J.; Omondi, P.; Heck, B.; Fleming, K.; Ohanya, S.; Gonçalves, Rodrigo (2013)It has been postulated that Lake Naivasha, Kenya, has experienced a rapid decrease (and fluctuations) in its spatial extent and level between the years 2002 to 2010. Many factors have been advanced to explain this, with ...