Psychological Need Thwarting in the Sport Context: Assessing the Darker Sideof Athletic Experience
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Research in self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002) has shown that satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and relatedness needs in sport contexts is associated with enhanced engagement, performance, and well-being. This article outlines the initial development of a multidimensional measure designed to assess psychological need thwarting, an under-studied area of conceptual and practical importance. Study 1 generated a pool of items designed to tap the negative experiential state that occurs when athletes perceive their needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness to be actively undermined. Study 2 tested the factorial structure of the questionnaire using confirmatory factor analysis. The supported model comprised 3 factors, which represented the hypothesized interrelated dimensions of need thwarting. The model was refined and cross-validated using an independent sample in Study 3. Overall, the psychological need thwarting scale (PNTS) demonstrated good content, factorial, and predictive validity, as well as internal consistency and invariance across gender, sport type, competitive level, and competitive experience. The conceptualization of psychological need thwarting is discussed, and suggestions are made regarding the use of the PNTS in research pertaining to the darker side of sport participation.
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Bhavsar, Nikita; Ntoumanis, Nikos ; Quested, Eleanor ; Gucciardi, Daniel ; Thogersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ryan, R.M.; Reeve, J.; Sarrazin, P.; Bartholomew, K.J. (2019)© 2019 Elsevier Ltd. Objectives: Various self-report measures based on Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2017) have been developed to assess athletes’ perceptions of their coaches’ need supportive ...
Self-Determination Theory and Diminished Functioning: The Role of Interpersonal Control and Psychological Need ThwartingBartholomew, K.; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Ryan, R.; Bosch, J.; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie (2011)Drawing from self-determination theory, three studies explored the social-environmental conditions that satisfy versus thwart psychological needs and, in turn, affect psychological functioning and well-being or ill-being. ...
Bhavsar, Nikita; Bartholomew, K.J.; Quested, Eleanor ; Gucciardi, Daniel ; Thogersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie ; Reeve, J.; Sarrazin, P.; Ntoumanis, Nikos (2020)© 2019 Elsevier Ltd Objectives: Research guided by Self-determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2017) has repeatedly demonstrated the importance of focusing on both the bright (satisfaction) and dark ...