The affine constrained GNSS attitude model and its multivariate integer least-squares solution
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A new global navigation satellite system (GNSS) carrier-phase attitude model and its solution are introduced in this contribution. This affine-constrained GNSS attitude model has the advantage that it avoids the computational complexity of the orthonormality-constrained GNSS attitude model, while it still has a significantly improved ambiguity resolution performance over its unconstrained counterpart. The functional and stochastic model is formulated in multivariate form, for one-, two- and three-dimensional antenna arrays, tracking GNSS signals on an arbitrary number of frequencies with two or more antennas. The stochastic model includes the capability to capture variations in the antenna quality within the array. The multivariate integer least squares solution of the model parameters is given and the model’s ambiguity success-rate is analysed by means of the ambiguity dilution of precision (ADOP). A general closed form expression for the affine-constrained ADOP is derived, thus providing an easy-to-use and insightful rule-of-thumb for the ambiguity resolution capabilities of the affine constrained GNSS attitude model.
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