A review of recent advances in 3D ear and expression invariant face biometrics
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Biometric-based human recognition is rapidly gaining popularity due to breaches of traditional security systems and the lowering cost of sensors. The current research trend is to use 3D data and to combine multiple traits to improve accuracy and robustness. This article comprehensively reviews unimodal and multimodal recognition using 3D ear and face data. It covers associated data collection, detection, representation, and matching techniques and focuses on the challenging problem of expression variations. All the approaches are classified according to their methodologies. Through the analysis of the scope and limitations of these techniques, it is concluded that further research should investigate fast and fully automatic ear-face multimodal systems robust to occlusions and deformations.
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