Load Frequency Control in a Microgrid: Challenges and Improvements
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A microgrid can span over a large area, especially in rural townships. In such cases, the distributed generators (DGs) must be controlled in a decentralized fashion, based on the locally available measurements. The main concerns are control of system voltage magnitude and frequency, which can either lead to system instability or voltage collapse. In this chapter, the operational challenges of load frequency control in a microgrid are discussed and few methods are proposed to meet these challenges. In particular, issues of power sharing, power quality and system stability are addressed, when the system operates under decentralized control. The main focus of this chapter is to provide solutions to improve the system performance in different situations. The scenarios considered are (a) when the system stability margin is low, (b) when the line impedance has a high R to X ratio, (c) when the system contains unbalanced and/or distorted loads. Also a scheme is proposed in which a microgrid can be frequency isolated from a utility grid while being capable of bidirectional power transfer. In all these cases, the use of angle droop in converter interfaced DGs is adopted. It has been shown that this results in a more responsive control action compared to the traditional frequency based droop control.
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Shahnia, Farhad; Arefi, A. (2017)© 2017 Elsevier LtdUntil now, microgrids were assumed to operate either in grid-connected or islanded modes. As a third alternative, neighboring microgrids may interconnect to support each other during faults in a section ...