Development and application of a method for quantifying factors affecting chloramine decay in service reservoirs
MetadataShow full item record
Service reservoirs play an important role in maintaining water quality in distribution systems. Several factors affect the reservoir water quality, including bulk water reactions, stratification, sediment accumulation and wall reactions. It is generally thought that biofilm and sediments can harbour microorganisms, especially in chloraminated reservoirs, but their impact on disinfectant loss on disinfectant loss has not been quantified. Hence, debate exists as to the extent of the problem. To quantify the impact, the reservoir acceleration factor (FRa) is defined. This factor represents the acceleration of chloramine decay arising from all causes, including changes in retention time, assuming that the reservoir is completely mixed. Such an approach quantifies the impact of factors, other than chemical reactions, in the bulk water. Data from three full-scale chloraminated service reservoirs in distribution systems of Sydney, Australia, were analysed to demonstrate the generality of the method. Results showed that in two large service reservoirs (404 × 103 m3 and 82 × 103 m3) there was minimal impact from biofilm/sediment. However, in a small reservoir (3 × 103 m3), the biofilm/sediment had significant impact. In both small and large reservoirs, the effect of stratification was significant.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Adhikari, Rekha; Sathasivan, Arumugam; Bal Krishna, K (2012)Maintaining longer lasting disinfectant residual in a distribution system is highly important to prevent microbial re-growth and hence to deliver safe drinking water. However, various factors such as microbes present in ...
Effect of iron corrosion on the fate of dosed copper to inhibit nitrification in chloraminated water distribution systemZhan, Weixi (2011)Nitrification has been acknowledged as one of the major barriers towards efficient chloramination in water supply distribution systems. Many water utilities employing monochloramine as the final disinfectant have been ...
Zhan, Weixi (2007)Chloramine as a secondary disinfectant has been widely used by many water utilities around the world especially in a distribution system requiring a longer retention time such as the 600km long Goldfield water distribution ...