Tailored design of functional nanoporous carbon materials toward fuel cell applications
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The ideal catalyst support toward development of high-performance electrodes for fuel cells should possess advantageous structural and chemical features concerning accessibility to framework surfaces and electrochemical stability of conducting frameworks. In order to satisfy these requirements for the design of fuel cells by using nanoporous carbon electrodes, a great deal of efforts has been devoted to the functionalization of nanoporous carbon electrodes. In this review, the recent developments of nanoporous carbon materials synthesis are summarized with introduction of their potentials in fuel cells. The focuses are placed on precise controls of porosity, crystallinity, and morphology, combined with the designs of surface structure, framework composition, and encapsulation of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles. Finally, some perspectives are provided for future developments and directions of the synthesis and functionalization of nanoporous carbon materials for fuel cell design.
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