Marine mammal acoustics exposure analysis models used in US Navy environmental impact statements.
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In compliance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), the Navy must prepare Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) and obtain Letters of Authorization (LOAs) allowing, as defined in the MMPA, incidental “takes” of marine mammals for its training activities. The Navy has prepared these documents for each of its training ranges addressing the possible effects of noise on marine mammals. The authors were asked to determine whether two Navy models and a model developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) were designed and implemented to obtain the best unbiased estimates for the level A and level B (types I and II) takes for midfrequency active sonar (MFAS).
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Filadelfo, R.; Pinelis, Y.; Davis, S.; Chase, R.; Mintz, J.; Wolfanger, J.; Tyack, P.; Ketten, Darlene; D’Amico, A. (2009)There have been several incidents when Navy sonar operations at sea coincided in time and location with the mass stranding of marine mammals, particularly beaked whales. Filadelfo et al. (this issue) compiled historical ...
Erbe, Christine (2012)Public concern about the effects of underwater noise on marine mammals has steadily increased over the past few decades. Research programs have been developed around the globe to investigate noise impacts. Government ...
Filadelfo, R.; Mintz, J.; Michlovich, E.; D’Amico, A.; Tyack, P.; Ketten, Darlene (2009)There have been several incidents in which U.S. Navy sonar operations at sea coincided in time and location with a mass stranding of marine mammals, particularly beaked whales. Although a conclusive cause-and-effect ...