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dc.contributor.authorShannon, R.
dc.contributor.authorRavi, V.
dc.contributor.authorColes, W.
dc.contributor.authorHobbs, G.
dc.contributor.authorKeith, M.
dc.contributor.authorManchester, R.
dc.contributor.authorWyithe, J.
dc.contributor.authorBailes, M.
dc.contributor.authorBhat, Ramesh
dc.contributor.authorBurke-Spolaor, S.
dc.contributor.authorKhoo, J.
dc.contributor.authorLevin, Y.
dc.contributor.authorOslowski, S.
dc.contributor.authorSarkissian, J.
dc.contributor.authorvan Straten, W.
dc.contributor.authorVerbiest, J.
dc.contributor.authorWang, J.-B.
dc.identifier.citationShannon, R. and Ravi, V. and Coles, W. and Hobbs, G. and Keith, M. and Manchester, R. and Wyithe, J. and Bailes, M. and Bhat, N. and Burke-Spolaor, S. and Khoo, J. and Levin, Y. and Oslowski, S. and Sarkissian, J. and van Straten, W. and Verbiest, J. and Wang, J.-B. 2013. Gravitational-wave limits from pulsar timing constrain supermassive black hole evolution. Science. 342: pp. 334-337.

The formation and growth processes of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are not well constrained. SMBH population models, however, provide specific predictions for the properties of the gravitational-wave background (GWB) from binary SMBHs in merging galaxies throughout the Universe. Using observations from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array, we constrain the fractional GWB energy density with 95% confidence to be OmegaGW(H0/73 km s-1 Mpc -1)2 < 1.3 x 10-9 at a frequency of 2.8 nHz, which is approximately a factor of six more stringent than previous limits. We compare our limit to models of the SMBH population and find inconsistencies at confidence levels between 46% and 91%. For example, the standard galaxy formation model implemented in the Millennium simulations is inconsistent with our limit with 50% probability.

dc.publisherThe American Association for the Advancement of Science
dc.titleGravitational-wave limits from pulsar timing constrain supermassive black hole evolution
dc.typeJournal Article
curtin.accessStatusFulltext not available

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