Modification of the effect of lipids on the risk of cardiovascular diseases by cigarette smoking
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Both an abnormal lipid profile (elevated serum total cholesterol and/or reduced serum HDL-C) and cigarette smoking increase the risk of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. Since these risk factors may occur together, a question has arisen as to whether their joint effects are greater than would be anticipated from the extensive research on their individual effects. Thus, we have reviewed the epidemiological and clinical studies that have quantified this potential interaction. Although some studies, including a recent large meta-analysis, have found some degree of synergism between these risk factors, there is no consensus in the results. It seems that any interaction that there may be is small in magnitude and of little clinical relevance. © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd.
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