Biomarker Records Associated with Mass Extinction Events
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The history of life on Earth is punctuated by a series of mass extinction episodes that vary widely in their magnitude, duration, and cause. Biomarkers are a powerful tool for the reconstruction of historical environmental conditions and can therefore provide insights into the cause and responses to ancient extinction events. In examining the five largest mass extinctions in the geological record, investigators have used biomarkers to elucidate key processes such as eutrophy, euxinia, ocean acidification, changes in hydrological balance, and changes in atmospheric CO2. By using these molecular fossils to understand how Earth and its ecosystems have responded to unusual environmental activity during these extinctions, models can be made to predict how Earth will respond to future changes in its climate.
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Biomarker distributions and stable isotopes (C, S, H) to establish palaeoenvironmental change related to the end-Permian mass extinction eventNabbefeld, Birgit (2009)Extinction, the irreversible loss of species, is perhaps the most alarming symptom of the ongoing biodiversity crisis. Some of the most significant changes in evolution throughout Earth’s history have coincided with ...
Enhancing extinction learning: Occasional presentations of the unconditioned stimulus during extinction eliminate spontaneous recovery, but not necessarily reacquisition of fearThompson, A.; McEvoy, P.; Lipp, Ottmar (2018)Background: Fears underlying anxiety disorders are commonly treated with exposure-based therapies, which are based on the principles of extinction learning. While these treatments are efficacious, fears may return after ...
Lucas, Katherine; Luck, Camilla; Lipp, Ottmar (2018)© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. Although contemporary treatments for anxiety disorders are very efficient in reducing anxiety, return of fear after successful treatment is common which signifies a need for interventions that have a ...