The profile of psychiatric symptoms exacerbated by methamphetamine use
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Background: Methamphetamine use can produce symptoms almost indistinguishable from schizophrenia. Distinguishing between the two conditions has been hampered by the lack of a validated symptom profile for methamphetamine-induced psychiatric symptoms. We use data from a longitudinal cohort study to examine the profile of psychiatric symptoms that are acutely exacerbated by methamphetamine use. Methods: 164 methamphetamine users, who did not meet DSM-IV criteria for a lifetime primary psychotic disorder, were followed monthly for one year to assess the relationship between days of methamphetamine use and symptom severity on the 24-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms with methamphetamine use was quantified using random coefficient models. The dimensions of symptom exacerbation were examined using principal axis factoring and a latent profile analysis. Results: Symptoms exacerbated by methamphetamine loaded on three factors: positive psychotic symptoms (suspiciousness, unusual thought content, hallucinations, bizarre behavior); affective symptoms (depression, suicidality, guilt, hostility, somatic concern, self-neglect); and psychomotor symptoms (tension, excitement, distractibility, motor hyperactivity). Methamphetamine use did not significantly increase negative symptoms. Vulnerability to positive psychotic and affective symptom exacerbation was shared by 28% of participants, and this vulnerability aligned with a past year DSM-IV diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis (38% vs. 22%, χ2(df1) = 3.66, p = 0.056). Conclusion: Methamphetamine use produced a symptom profile comprised of positive psychotic and affective symptoms, which aligned with a diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis, with no evidence of a negative syndrome.
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McKetin, Rebecca; Gardner, J.; Baker, A.; Dawe, S.; Ali, R.; Voce, A.; Leach, L.; Lubman, D. (2016)© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. This study examined correlates of transient versus persistent psychotic symptoms among people dependent on methamphetamine. A longitudinal prospective cohort study of dependent methamphetamine ...
Clinical and demographic characteristics of people who smoke versus inject crystalline methamphetamine in Australia: Findings from a pharmacotherapy trialMcKetin, Rebecca ; Quinn, B.; Higgs, Peter ; Berk, M.; Dean, O.M.; Turner, A.; Kelly, P.J.; Lubman, D.I.; Carter, G.; Baker, A.L.; Manning, V.; Thomas, T.; Bathish, R.; Raftery, D.; Saunders, L.; Wrobel, A.; Meehan, A.; Sinclair, B.; Reid, D.; Arunogiri, S.; Hill, H.; Cordaro, F.; Dietze, Paul (2021)Introduction and Aims: There has been a rapid increase in smoking crystalline methamphetamine in Australia. We compare the clinical and demographic characteristics of those who smoke versus inject the drug in a cohort of ...
A Systematic Review of the Symptom Profile and Course of Methamphetamine-Associated Psychosis: Substance Use and MisuseVoce, A.; Calabria, B.; Burns, R.; Castle, D.; McKetin, Rebecca (2019)Objectives: The psychiatric symptom profile of methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP) has varied considerably across studies of different research designs. We performed a systematic review to examine the available ...