Heat distortion temperature and mechanical properties of agricultural wastes-reinforced phenolic composites
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Phenolic composites containing three different types of agricultural waste fillers (i.e. oil palm shell flour, rice husk flour, and coconut shell) have been prepared consecutively using the two-roll milling and hot pressed methods. The resulting granules were compression molded before mechanical testing. Mechanical properties of the agro-fillers/phenolic composites were investigated by means of flexural test, impact test, and heat distortion temperature measurement. Flexural test was conducted following ASTM D790, impact test was carried out according to ASTM D-256, while heat distortion temperature was measured using ASTM D648. The stiffness of the composites is insensitive to the increasing of the filler loading. The incorporation of the three different types of agro-waste fillers into the phenolic matrix produced composites with better heat distortion temperature as compared to that of the neat resin. Overall, coconut shell flour was superior in improving the flexural strength of the composites, while oil palm shell composites exhibited the most apparent improvement in heat distortion temperature.
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