Aging, lifestyle factors, hormones and bone health in Singaporean men
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Purpose. The present study examined how age, bodyweight, body fat, regular exercise and some endocrine factors are associated with osteoporosis, spine bone mineral density (Sbmd) and femoral neck bone mineral density (Fnbmd) in Singaporean men. Methods. Body composition and bone scans of lumbar spine at L2-L4 and hip were carried out with duel-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Anthropometric parameters were measured and demographic data, medical history and exercise schedule were collected via a questionnaire. Results. Osteoporosis prevalence was higher and Sbmd and Fnbmd were lower in men with high percent body fat (PBF) and conversely osteoporosis prevalence was lower and Sbmd and Fnbmd were higher in men with higher body mass index (BMI). Age was negatively associated with Fnbmd but not Sbmd. On the other hand, PBF and insulin levels were negatively associated with both Sbmd and Fnbmd. Body mass index and exercise intensity were positively associated with both Sbmd and Fnbmd. Sex hormones were significantly associated with only Sbmd but not Fnbmd. Both estradiol and DHEAS were positively, while testosterone was negatively associated with Sbmd. Conclusion. The study shows that the prevalence of osteoporosis and some of the determinants of bone mineral density (BMD) in Singaporean men was site-specific. Further, BMI and PBF are opposing predictors of BMD. Therefore, any strategy for improving bone health should include modalities that increase lean and bone mass and decrease fat mass. The bone health of Singaporean men is comparable to non-Hispanic whites and better than some other Asian men.
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