Direct electrochemistry based biosensors and biofuel cells enabled with nanostructured materials
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Direct electrochemistry of redox proteins provides exciting platforms for performance improvement of biosensorsand power enhancement of biofuel cells. Nanomaterials with tailored structures and unique properties are promisingbuilding blocks to promote direct electron transfer (DET) between redox-active cofactors of proteins and electrodes.This paper reviews the advances of nanostructured materials for DET of redox proteins in recent years, and isdivided into applications in biosensors and biofuel cells. Both of them focus on the performance improvement, togetherwith discussion on major challenges and opportunities for future research. The enhancement mechanism fordirect electrochemistry is also reviewed for fundamental insights.
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