Provenance and tectonic setting of Miocene siliciclastic sediments, Sibuti formation, northwestern Borneo
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Provenance and tectonic setting of sandstone and mudstone units of the Miocene Sibuti Formation from northwest Borneo have been studied based on the mineralogy, major and trace element geochemistry data. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) data revealed that the sandstones and mudstones were abundant in quartz, pyrite, clay, and heavy minerals such as zircon, rutile, and some detrital cassiterite. Geochemically, the sandstones and mudstones are classified into quartz arenite, litharenite, sublitharenite, arkose, and wacke. Quartz arenites are enriched with SiO2, Zr, and Th and depleted in Al2O3, CaO, and other elements compared to other sandstone types, indicating high maturity and intensive weathering. Chemical index of alteration (CIA: 77–90), plagioclase index of alteration (PIA: 86–100), and A-CN-K diagram suggest intense weathering in the source area. Elemental ratios such as La/Sc, Th/Sc, Cr/Th, La/Co, and Th/Co are similar to sediments derived from the felsic rocks. Also, the provenance discrimination diagrams suggest recycled continental nature of these clastic sediments which are mostly derived from metasedimentary source (Rajang Formation). Discriminant-function diagram for the tectonic discrimination of siliciclastic sediments revealed that the sediments of Sibuti Formation were derived from a collision zone, which is consistent with the geology of the study area.
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