An integrated approach to study the impact of fractures distribution on the Ilam-Sarvak carbonate reservoirs: a case study from the Strait of Hormuz, the Persian Gulf
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Most of the Iranian hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Persian Gulf Basin and the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt are composed of fractured carbonate rocks. In this regard, determining the spatial distribution of fractures has been a challenging issue. In this study, an integrated approach was applied for understanding the impact of fractures spatial distribution on the Ilam-Sarvak (Cenomanian to Santonian) carbonate reservoir rocks. For this purpose, seismic interpretation techniques along with geomechanical and geostatistical modeling were employed to characterize fractures at different scales. Initially, the relationship between fractures origin and the normal faults was investigated by conducting an in-situ stress analysis. Afterwards, the velocity deviation log (VDL) and fracture intensity log (FIL) were derived as fracture attributes from the interpretation of Formation Micro Imager (FMI) and conventional well logs. A 3D model of VDL and FIL was achieved by using a sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) method. In order to achieve a more realistic and accurate model of the factures distribution, variations of the shear-wave velocity and geomechanical properties (Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio) were estimated by applying the advanced seismic interpretation techniques in the normal faults domain. The results show that the intensity of fractures increases once they are introduced to the normal faults, especially in the central part of the study area around well#2. Such a fractured zone is verified by fracture density log derived from FMI logs of the mentioned well. Obviously, there is a close-knit relationship between the fracture system and the normal faults. Eventually, secondary porosity caused by features was determined though identification of Hydraulic Flow Units (HFUs). Based on the porosity and permeability data, seven HFUs were determined for the Ilam-Sarvak reservoirs. The very high values of Log FZI indicate the possible presence of fractures. Overall, the fractures contributed to enhance the secondary porosity of the reservoir rocks though increasing matrix permeability. To sum up, the fractures system plays a critical role in controlling reservoir properties especially in the hanging-wall of normal faults where the majority of the macro and micro fractures are distributed.
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