Measuring the mass of solar system planets using pulsar timing
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High-precision pulsar timing relies on a solar system ephemeris in order to convert times of arrival (TOAs) of pulses measured at an observatory to the solar system barycenter. Any error in the conversion to the barycentric TOAs leads to a systematic variation in the observed timing residuals; specifically, an incorrect planetary mass leads to a predominantly sinusoidal variation having a period and phase associated with the planet's orbital motion about the Sun. By using an array of pulsars (PSRs J0437-4715, J1744-1134, J1857+0943, J1909-3744), the masses of the planetary systems from Mercury to Saturn have been determined. These masses are consistent with the best-known masses determined by spacecraft observations, with the mass of the Jovian system, 9.547921(2)×10-4M⊙, being significantly more accurate than the mass determined from the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft, and consistent with but less accurate than the value from the Galileo spacecraft. While spacecraft are likely to produce the most accurate measurements for individual solar system bodies, the pulsar technique is sensitive to planetary system masses and has the potential to provide the most accurate values of these masses for some planets.
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Champion, D.; Hobbs, G.; Manchester, R.; Edwards, R.; Backer, D.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N.D.R.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Coles, W.; Demorest, P.B.; Ferdman, R.D.; Folkner, W.M.; Hotan, Aidan; Kramer, M.; Lommen, A.N.; Nice, D.J.; Purver, M.B.; Sarkissian, J.; Stairs, I.H.; van Straten, W.; Verbiest, J.P.W.; Yardley, D.R.B. (2010)High-precision pulsar timing relies on a solar system ephemeris in order to convert times of arrival (TOAs) of pulses measured at an observatory to the solar system barycenter. Any error in the conversion to the barycentric ...
Shannon, Ryan; Cordes, J.; Metcalfe, T.; Lazio, T.; Cognard, I.; Desvignes, G.; Janssen, G.; Jessner, A.; Kramer, M.; Lazaridis, K.; Purver, M.; Stappers, B.; Theureau, G. (2013)Pulsar timing observations have revealed companions to neutron stars that include other neutron stars, white dwarfs, main-sequence stars, and planets. We demonstrate that the correlated and apparently stochastic residual ...
Deng, X.; Hobbs, G.; You, X.; Li, M.; Keith, M.; Shannon, Ryan; Coles, W.; Manchester, R.; Zheng, J.; Yu, X.; Gao, D.; Wu, X.; Chen, D. (2013)We demonstrate how observations of pulsars can be used to help navigate a spacecraft travelling in the solar system. We make use of archival observations of millisecond pulsars from the Parkes radio telescope in order to ...