Dietary Intervention for Glucose Tolerance In Teens (DIG IT): Protocol of a randomized controlled trial using health coaching to prevent youth-onset type 2 diabetes
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Background: Youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease that is newly emerging and behavioral strategies for its prevention are limited. Interventions that target the lifestyle behaviors of adolescents, to improve poor dietary quality and reduce excessive sedentariness, promise to reduce the risk of developing T2D. Health coaching is effective for promoting healthy behaviors in patients who have chronic disease, but few experimental studies are in adolescents. This randomized controlled trial, in adolescents with prediabetes, will determine the effectiveness of a health coaching intervention to facilitate adoption of healthy diet and activity behaviors that delay or prevent development of T2D. Methods/design: The Dietary Intervention for Glucose Tolerance In Teens (DIG IT) trial will involve an evaluation of a health coaching intervention in adolescents with prediabetes. Eligible participants will be randomized to receive 6 months of health coaching or a single dietary consultation that is standard-of-care. The primary outcome will be 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test concentration. Secondary outcomes will include measures of glycemia and insulin action as well as dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors measured using an electronic food record, and by inclinometer. Data will be collected before and after the intervention (at 6 months) and at 12 months (to assess sustainability). Discussion: This trial will determine whether a health coaching intervention, a personalized and low-cost approach to modify dietary and activity behaviors, is effective and sustainable for prevention of youth-onset T2D, relative to standard-of-care. Health coaching has the potential to be widely implemented in clinical or community settings.
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