Toxic effects of polyethylene terephthalate microparticles and Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on the calanoid copepod, Parvocalanus crassirostris
MetadataShow full item record
© 2017 Elsevier Inc.Large amounts of plastic end up in the oceans every year where they fragment into microplastics over time. During this process, microplastics and their associated plasticizers become available for ingestion by different organisms. This study assessed the effects of microplastics (Polyethylene terephthalate; PET) and one plasticizer (Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate; DEHP) on mortality, productivity, population sizes and gene expression of the calanoid copepod Parvocalanus crassirostris. Copepods were exposed to DEHP for 48 h to assess toxicity. Adults were very healthy following chemical exposure (up to 5120 µg L-1), whereas nauplii were severely affected at very low concentrations (48 h LC50value of 1.04 ng L-1). Adults exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of DEHP (0.1–0.3 µg L-1) or microplastics (10,000–80,000 particles mL-1) exhibited substantial reductions in egg production. Populations were exposed to either microplastics or DEHP for 6 days with 18 days of recovery or for 24 days. Populations exposed to microplastics for 24 days significantly depleted in population size (60±4.1%, p<0.001) relative to controls, whilst populations exposed for only 6 days (with 18 days of recovery) experienced less severe depletions (75±6.0% of control, p<0.05). Populations exposed to DEHP, however, exhibited no recovery and both treatments (6 and 24 days) yielded the same average population size at the termination of the experiment (59±4.9% and 59±3.4% compared to control; p<0.001). These results suggest that DEHP may induce reproductive disorders that can be inherited by subsequent generations. Histone 3 (H3) was significantly (p<0.05) upregulated in both plastic and DEHP treatments after 6 days of exposure, but not after 18 days of recovery. Hsp70-like expression showed to be unresponsive to either DEHP or microplastic exposure. Clearly, microplastics and plasticizers pose a serious threat to zooplankton and potentially to higher trophic levels.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Behavioural responses of Australian freshwater crayfish (Cherax tenuimanus and Cherax albidus) to water-borne odoursHeight, Shaun Gareth (2008)Interactions between non-native yabbies (Cherax albidus) and indigenous marron (Cherax tenuimanus) in the south-west of Western Australia are not well understood. While there is abundant evidence to suggest that invasive ...
Seed-dormancy depth is partitioned more strongly among habitats than among species in tropical ephemeralsCross, Adam; Barrett, M.; Turner, S.; Dixon, Kingsley; Merritt, D. (2018)Seed biology in the annual herbaceous flora of ecologically stressful, seasonally wet habitats remains largely unexplored. Temporal and spatial species turnover among these habitats is often high, yet little is known about ...
Rapid increase in coral cover on an isolated coral reef, the Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve, north-western AustraliaCeccarelli, D.; Richards, Zoe; Pratchett, M.; Cvitanovic, C. (2011)Against a background of coral reef ecosystem decline, understanding the propensity for coral communities to recover after acute disturbances is fundamental to forecasting and maintaining resilience. It may be expected ...