Formulation Effects on Topical Nanoparticle Penetration
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© 2016 Elsevier Inc.Nanotechnology is increasingly applied as a tool in healthcare. Nanoparticles (NPs) can come in contact with the skin as formulated products for dermatological and cosmetic outcomes. Although it is generally accepted that NPs greater than 10. nm do not penetrate the intact human stratum corneum, NPs may be used to selectively target the hair follicles and skin appendages. The application of metal oxides such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide as nanoparticle-sized sunscreens is well established. In addition, formulation of unstable or poorly water-soluble compounds within NPs can offer considerable advantages for the development of stable and elegant topical products. Solid lipid NPs and nanostructured lipid carriers have received particular attention as their lipid components have been shown to provide a skin permeation enhancement effect. In addition, their interaction with the formulation vehicle may offer synergistic permeation enhancement. This chapter reviews the formulation of NPs for skin delivery and the effects of these formulations of skin permeation.
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