Barroom aggression among Australian men: Associations with heavy episodic drinking, conformity to masculine norms, and personal and perceived peer approval of barroom aggression
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Objective: Research suggests that heavy episodic drinking (HED), perceived peer norms, and personal approval of aggression influence male barroom aggression (MBA). Qualitative research suggests that conformity to hegemonic masculine gender norms also influences MBA; however, quantitative research on the direct and indirect influence of masculinity on MBA is limited. This study tested the relationships between HED, conformity to masculine gender norms, and personal approval and peer approval of MBA on MBA perpetration, as well as the indirect effect of masculine norms on MBA via HED. Method: A convenience sample of Australian men (N = 322; mean age = 21.05 years, SD = 1.95; 76.9% university students) completed an online questionnaire, assessing HED and MBA over the previous year, and sub-scales of the Beliefs and Attitudes Towards Male Alcohol-Related Ag- gression Inventory and Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46. Results: Negative binomial regression analyses found that, overall, HED, male peer approval, and personal approval of MBA directly predicted increased risk of verbal and physical MBA perpetration. Greater conformity to specific masculine norms also increased (Power Over Women) and decreased (Emotional Control, Heterosexual Self-Presentation) risk of MBA perpetration. The masculine norms Risk Taking, Playboy, and Emotional Control were found to be indirect predictors of MBA via HED. Conclusions: Risk of MBA perpetration is increased primarily by HED as a direct, but also mediating, predictor. Personal and male peer approval of MBA, and specific masculine norms, further increase this risk whereas other masculine norms appear protective.
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