Vitamin D status is inversely associated with markers of risk for type 2 diabetes: A population based study in Victoria, Australia
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A growing body of evidence suggests a protective role of Vitamin D on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated this relationship in a population sample from one Australian state. The data of 3,393 Australian adults aged 18±75 years who participated in the 2009±2010 Victorian Health Monitor survey was analyzed. Socio-demographic information, biomedical variables, and dietary intakes were collected and fasting blood samples were analyzed for 25, hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD), HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and lipid profiles. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between tertiles of serum 25OHD and categories of FPG (<5.6 mmol/L vs. 5.6±6.9 mmol/L), and HbA1c (<5.7% vs. 5.7±6.4%). After adjusting for social, dietary, biomedical and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components (waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure), every 10 nmol/L increment in serum 25OHD significantly reduced the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of a higher FPG [AOR 0.91, (0.86, 0.97); p = 0.002] and a higher HbA1c [AOR 0.94, (0.90, 0.98); p = 0.009]. Analysis by tertiles of 25OHD indicated that after adjustment for socio-demographic and dietary variables, those with high 25OHD (65±204 nmol/L) had reduced odds of a higher FPG [AOR 0.60, (0.43, 0.83); p = 0.008] as well as higher HbA1c [AOR 0.67, (0.53, 0.85); p = 0.005] compared to the lowest 25OHD (10±44 nmol/L) tertile. On final adjustment for other components of MetS, those in the highest tertile of 25OHD had significantly reduced odds of higher FPG [AOR 0.61, (0.44, 0.84); p = 0.011] and of higher HbA1c [AOR 0.74, (0.58, 0.93); p = 0.041] vs. low 25OHD tertile. Overall, the data support a direct, protective effect of higher 25OHD on FPG and HbA1c; two criteria for assessment of risk of T2DM.
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