Post-supereruption recovery at Toba Caldera
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Large calderas, or supervolcanoes, are sites of the most catastrophic and hazardous events on Earth, yet the temporal details of post-supereruption activity, or resurgence, remain largely unknown, limiting our ability to understand how supervolcanoes work and address their hazards. Toba Caldera, Indonesia, caused the greatest volcanic catastrophe of the last 100 kyr, climactically erupting ~74 ka. Since the supereruption, Toba has been in a state of resurgence but its magmatic and uplift history has remained unclear. Here we reveal that new 14 C, zircon U-Th crystallization and (U-Th)/He ages show resurgence commenced at 69.7±4.5 ka and continued until at least ~2.7 ka, progressing westward across the caldera, as reflected by post-caldera effusive lava eruptions and uplifted lake sediment. The major stratovolcano north of Toba, Sinabung, shows strong geochemical kinship with Toba, and zircons from recent eruption products suggest Toba's climactic magma reservoir extends beneath Sinabung and is being tapped during eruptions.
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