Multi-ethnic reference values for spirometry for the 3-95-yr age range: The global lung function 2012 equations
MetadataShow full item record
The aim of the Task Force was to derive continuous prediction equations and their lower limits of normal for spirometric indices, which are applicable globally. Over 160,000 data points from 72 centres in 33 countries were shared with the European Respiratory Society Global Lung Function Initiative. Eliminating data that could not be used (mostly missing ethnic group, some outliers) left 97,759 records of healthy nonsmokers (55.3% females) aged 2.5–95 yrs. Lung function data were collated and prediction equations derived using the LMS method, which allows simultaneous modelling of the mean (mu), the coefficient of variation (sigma) and skewness (lambda) of a distribution family. After discarding 23,572 records, mostly because they could not be combined with other ethnic or geographic groups, reference equations were derived for healthy individuals aged 3–95 yrs for Caucasians (n=57,395), African–Americans (n=3,545), and North (n=4,992) and South East Asians (n=8,255). Forced expiratory value in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) between ethnic groups differed proportionally from that in Caucasians, such that FEV1/FVC remained virtually independent of ethnic group. For individuals not represented by these four groups, or of mixed ethnic origins, a composite equation taken as the average of the above equations is provided to facilitate interpretation until a more appropriate solution is developed. Spirometric prediction equations for the 3–95-age range are now available that include appropriate age-dependent lower limits of normal. They can be applied globally to different ethnic groups. Additional data from the Indian subcontinent and Arabic, Polynesian and Latin American countries, as well as Africa will further improve these equations in the future.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Butt, Mohsin; de Run, E. (2011)Research on ethnic advertisements has identified attitudinal differences between target and non-target groups. However, investigators have largely failed to explain the reasons behind these differences. Accordingly, this ...
A precollege engineering program’s effects on the grade eight minority students’ attitudes and achievement in science and mathematicsRosales, Ava Dawn Innerarity (2009)The National Science Board has declared that the production of citizens literate in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is at an all time low in the United States. Schools are not sufficiently preparing ...
Wang, C.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, Wan-Quan; Liu, Y.; Miao, L. (2018)© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The salient facial feature discovery is one of the important research tasks in ethnical group face recognition. In this paper, we first construct an ethnical group face dataset including ...