Recent Progress on Advanced Materials for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Operating Below 500 °C
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© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electricity generators that can convert the chemical energy in various fuels directly to the electric power with high efficiency. Recent advances in materials and related key components for SOFCs operating at ˜500 °C are summarized here, with a focus on the materials, structures, and techniques development for low-temperature SOFCs, including the analysis of most of the critical parameters affecting the electrochemical performance of the electrolyte, anode, and cathode. New strategies, such as thin-film deposition, exsolution of nanoparticles from perovskites, microwave plasma heating, and finger-like channeled electrodes, are discussed. These recent developments highlight the need for electrodes with higher activity and electrolytes with greater conductivity to generate a high electrochemical performance at lower temperatures.