Associations of prolonged standing with musculoskeletal symptoms—A systematic review of laboratory studies
MetadataShow full item record
While prolonged standing has shown to be detrimentally associated with musculoskeletal symptoms, exposure limits and underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We systematically reviewed evidence from laboratory studies on musculoskeletal symptom development during prolonged (=20 min) uninterrupted standing, quantified acute dose-response associations and described underlying mechanisms. Peer-reviewed articles were systematically searched for. Data from included articles were tabulated, and dose-response associations were statistically pooled. A linear interpolation of pooled dose-response associations was performed to estimate the duration of prolonged standing associated with musculoskeletal symptoms with a clinically relevant intensity of =9 (out of 100). We included 26 articles (from 25 studies with 591 participants), of which the majority examined associations of prolonged standing with low back and lower extremity symptoms. Evidence on other (e.g., upper limb) symptoms was limited and inconsistent. Pooled dose-response associations showed that clinically relevant levels of low back symptoms were reached after 71 min of prolonged standing, with this shortened to 42 min in those considered pain developers. Regarding standing-related low back symptoms, consistent evidence was found for postural mechanisms (i.e., trunk flexion and lumbar curvature), but not for mechanisms of muscle fatigue and/or variation in movement. Blood pooling was the most consistently reported mechanism for standing-related lower extremity symptoms. Evidence suggests a detrimental association of prolonged standing with low back and lower extremity symptoms. To avoid musculoskeletal symptoms (without having a-priori knowledge on whether someone will develop symptoms or not), dose-response evidence from this study suggests a recommendation to refrain from standing for prolonged periods > 40 min. Interventions should also focus on underlying pain mechanisms.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Associations of occupational standing with musculoskeletal symptoms: A systematic review with meta-analysisCoenen, Pieter; Willenberg, L.; Parry, Sharon; Shi, J.; Romero, L.; Blackwood, Diana; Maher, C.; Healy, Genevieve; Dunstan, D.; Straker, Leon (2016)Objective Given the high exposure to occupational standing in specific occupations, and recent initiatives to encourage intermittent standing among white-collar workers, a better understanding of the potential health ...
Beatty, Shelley Ellen (2003)The long-term regular use of tobacco and hazardous alcohol use are responsible for significant mortality and morbidity as well as social and economic harm in Australia each year. There is necessary the more cost-efficient ...
Children, computer exposure and musculoskeletal outcomes: the development of pathway models for school and home computer-related musculoskeletal outcomesHarris, C.; Straker, Leon; Pollock, C.; Smith, A. (2015)© 2015 Taylor & Francis Children's computer use is rapidly growing, together with reports of related musculoskeletal outcomes. Models and theories of adult-related risk factors demonstrate multivariate risk factors ...