Geographic variation and risk factors for systemic and limb ischemic events in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease: Insights from the REACH Registry
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Background: Patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at high risk of ischemic events. However, data about predictors of this risk are limited. Hypothesis: We analyzed baseline characteristics and 4-year follow-up of patients enrolled in the international REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry with symptomatic PAD and no history of stroke/transient ischemic attack to describe annual rates of recurrent ischemic events globally and geographically. Methods: The primary outcome was systemic ischemic events (composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) at 4 years. The secondary outcome was limb ischemic events (composite of lower limb amputation, peripheral bypass graft, and percutaneous intervention for PAD) at 2 years. Multivariate analysis identified risk factors associated with recurrent ischemic events. Results: The primary endpoint rate reached 4.7% during the first year and increased continuously (by 4%-5% each year) to 17.6% by year 4, driven mainly by cardiovascular mortality (11.1% at year 4). Japan experienced lower adjusted ischemic rates (P < 0.01) vs North America. Renal impairment (P < 0.01), congestive heart failure (P < 0.01), history of diabetes (P < 0.01), history of myocardial infarction (P = 0.01), vascular disease (single or poly, P < 0.01), and older age (P < 0.01) were associated with increased risk of systemic ischemic events, whereas statin use was associated with lower risk (P = 0.03). The limb ischemic event rate was 5.7% at 2 years. Conclusions: Four-year systemic ischemic risk in patients with PAD and no history of stroke or transient ischemic attack remains high, and was mainly driven by cardiovascular mortality.
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