Exposure to air pollution from traffic and neurodevelopmental disorders in swedish twins
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Background: Recent studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and neurodevelopmental disorders in children, but the role of pre-and postnatal exposure has not been elucidated. Aim: We aimed to explore the risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children in relation to pre-and postnatal exposure to air pollution from road traffic. Methods: Parents of 3,426 twins born in Stockholm during 1992-2000 were interviewed, when their children were 9 or 12 years old, for symptoms of neurodevelopmental disorders. Residence time-weighted concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter < 10 µm (PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from road traffic were estimated at participants' addresses during pregnancy, the first year, and the ninth year of life using dispersion modeling, controlling for seasonal variation. Multivariate regression models were used to examine the association between air pollution exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: No clear or consistent associations were found between air pollution exposure during any of the three time windows and any of the neurodevelopmental outcomes. For example, a 5-95% difference in exposure to NOx during pregnancy was associated with odds ratios (ORs) of 0.92 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-1.96) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.58-1.40) for ASD and ADHD respectively. A corresponding range in exposure to PM10 during pregnancy was related to ORs of 1.01 (95% CI: 0.52-1.96) and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.68-1.47) for ASD and ADHD. Conclusions: Our data do not provide support for an association between pre-or postnatal exposure to air pollution from road traffic and neurodevelopmental disorders in children.
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