Hippo circuitry and the redox modulation of hippo components in cancer cell fate decisions
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© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Meticulous and precise control of organ size is undoubtedly one of the most pivotal processes in mammalian development and regeneration along with cell differentiation, morphogenesis and programmed cell death. These processes are strictly regulated by complex and highly coordinated mechanisms to maintain a steady growth state. There are a number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors that dictate the total number and/or size of cells by influencing growth, proliferation, differentiation and cell death. Multiple pathways, such as those involved in promoting organ size and others that restrict disproportionate tissue growth act simultaneously to maintain cellular and tissue homeostasis. Aberrations at any level in these organ size-regulating processes can lead to various pathological states with cancers being the most formidable one (Yin and Zhang, 2011). Extensive research in the realm of growth control has led to the identification of the Hippo-signaling pathway as a critical network in modulating tissue growth via its effect on multiple signaling pathways and through intricate crosstalk with proteins that regulate cell polarity, adhesion and cell-cell interactions (Zhao et al., 2011b). The Hippo pathway controls cell number and organ size by transducing signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus to regulate the expression of genes involved in cell fate determination (Shi et al., 2015). In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries concerning Hippo pathway, its diversiform regulation in mammals as well as its implications in cancers, and highlight the possible role of oxidative stress in Hippo pathway regulation.
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