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dc.contributor.authorWhitehouse, A.
dc.contributor.authorGilani, S.
dc.contributor.authorShafait, F.
dc.contributor.authorMian, A.
dc.contributor.authorTan, D.
dc.contributor.authorMaybery, M.
dc.contributor.authorKeelan, J.
dc.contributor.authorHart, R.
dc.contributor.authorHandelsman, D.
dc.contributor.authorGoonawardene, M.
dc.contributor.authorEastwood, Peter
dc.identifier.citationWhitehouse, A. and Gilani, S. and Shafait, F. and Mian, A. and Tan, D. and Maybery, M. and Keelan, J. et al. 2015. Prenatal testosterone exposure is related to sexually dimorphic facial morphology in adulthood. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 282 (1816).

© 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Prenatal testosterone may have a powerful masculinizing effect on postnatal physical characteristics. However, no study has directly tested this hypothesis. Here, we report a 20-year follow-up study that measured testosterone concentrations from the umbilical cord blood of 97 male and 86 female newborns, and procured three-dimensional facial images on these participants in adulthood (range: 21-24 years). Twenty-three Euclidean and geodesic distances were measured from the facial images and an algorithm identified a set of six distances that most effectively distinguished adult males from females. From these distances, a 'gender score' was calculated for each face, indicating the degree of masculinity or femininity. Higher cord testosterone levels were associated with masculinized facial features when males and females were analysed together (n = 183; r = —0.59), as well as when males (n = 86; r = —0.55) and females (n = 97; r = —0.48) were examined separately (p-values < 0.001). The relationships remained significant and substantial after adjusting for potentially confounding variables. Adult circulating testosterone concentrations were available for males but showed no statistically significant relationship with gendered facial morphology (n = 85, r = 0.01, p = 0.93). This study provides the first direct evidence of a link between prenatal testosterone exposure and human facial structure.

dc.publisherThe Royal Society Publishing
dc.titlePrenatal testosterone exposure is related to sexually dimorphic facial morphology in adulthood
dc.typeJournal Article
dcterms.source.titleProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
curtin.departmentSchool of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science
curtin.accessStatusOpen access via publisher

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