Efficacy of a Low-Cost, inactivated Whole-Cell oral cholera vaccine: Results from 3 years of Follow-Up of a randomized, controlled trial
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Background: Killed oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been licensed for use in developing countries, but protection conferred by licensed OCVs beyond two years of follow-up has not been demonstrated in randomized, clinical trials. Methods/Principal Findings: We conducted a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a two-dose regimen of a low-cost killed whole cell OCV in residents 1 year of age and older living in 3,933 clusters in Kolkata, India. The primary endpoint was culture-proven Vibrio cholerae O1 diarrhea episodes severe enough to require treatment in a health care facility. Of the 66,900 fully dosed individuals (31,932 vaccinees and 34,968 placebo recipients), 38 vaccinees and 128 placebo-recipients developed cholera during three years of follow-up (protective efficacy 66%; one-sided 95%CI lower bound = 53%, p < 0.001). Vaccine protection during the third year of follow-up was 65% (one-sided 95%CI lower bound = 44%, p < 0.001). Significant protection was evident in the second year of follow-up in children vaccinated at ages 1-4 years and in the third year in older age groups. Conclus ions/Significance: The killed whole-cell OCV conferred significant protection that was evident in the second year of follow-up in young children and was sustained for at least three years in older age groups. Continued follow-up will be important to establish the vaccine's duration of protection. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00289224. © 2011 Sur et al.
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