Textural and chemical evolution of pyroxene during hydration and deformation: A consequence of retrograde metamorphism
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Centimetre-sized grains of Al-rich clinopyroxene within the granulitic anorthosites of the Bergen Arcs, W-Norway undergo deformation by faults and micro-shear zones (kinks) along which fluid has been introduced. The clinopyroxene (11 wt% Al 2 O 3 ) reacts to the deformation and hydration in two different ways: reaction to garnet (Alm 41 Prp 32 Grs 21 ) plus a less aluminous pyroxene (3 wt% Al 2 O 3 ) along kinks and the replacement of the Al-rich clinopyroxene by chlorite along cleavage planes. These reactions only take place in the hydrated part of a hand specimen that is separated from dry, unreacted granulite by a sharp interface that defines the limit of hydration. We use electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-Ray mapping together with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping to investigate the spatial and possible temporal relationships between these two parageneses. Gresens' analysis (Gresens, 1967) has been used to determine the mass balance and the local volume changes associated with the two reactions. The reaction to garnet + low-Al clinopyroxene induces a loss in volume of the solid phases whereas the chlorite formation gains volume. Strain variations result in local variation in undulose extinction in the parent clinopyroxene. EBSD results suggest that the density-increasing reaction to garnet + low-Al clinopyroxene takes place where the strain is highest whereas the density-decreasing reaction to chlorite forms away from shear zones where EBSD shows no significant strain. Modelling of phase equilibria suggest that the thermodynamic pressure of the assemblage within the shear zones is > 6 kbar higher than the pressure conditions for the whole rock for the same range of temperature (~ 650 °C). This result suggests that the stress redistribution within a rock may play a role in determining the reactions that take place during retrograde metamorphism.
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