Predicted and measured acute toxicity and developmental abnormalities in zebrafish embryos produced by exposure to individual aromatic acids
Embargo Lift Date
MetadataShow full item record
Petroleum acids, often called 'Naphthenic Acids' (NA), enter the environment in complex mixtures from numerous sources. These include from Produced and Process-Affected waters discharged from some oil industry activities, and from the environmental weathering of spilled crude oil hydrocarbons. Here, we test the hypothesis that individual NA within the complex mixtures can induce developmental abnormalities in fish, by screening a range of individual acids, with known chemical structures. Sixteen aromatic NA were tested using a Thamnocephalus platyrus (beavertail fairyshrimp) assay, to establish acute toxicity. Toxicities ranged from 568 to 8?µM, with the methylbiphenyl acid, 4-(p-tolyl)benzoic acid, most toxic. Next, five of the most toxic monoacids and for comparison, a diacid, were assayed using Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos to test for lethality and developmental abnormalities. The toxicities were also predicted using Admet predictor™ software. Exposure to the five monoacids produced deformities in zebrafish embryos in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, exposure to 4-(p-tolyl)benzoic acid produced abnormalities in >90% of the embryos at concentrations of <1?µM; exposure to dehydroabietic acid caused pericardial edema and stunted growth in 100% of the embryos at 6?µM and exposure to pyrene-1-carboxylic acid caused 80% of embryos to be affected at 3?µM. The findings of this preliminary study therefore suggest that some aromatic acids are targets for more detailed mechanistic studies of mode of action. The results should help to focus on those NA which may be important for monitoring in oil industry wastewaters and polluted environmental samples.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Mann, Reinier Matthew (2000)Surfactants are one of the more ubiquitous contaminants in aquatic systems. Their importance as toxic components of pesticide formulations has, however, been largely overlooked. Amphibians particularly, as inhabitants of ...
Jones, D.; Scarlett, Alan; West, C.; Rowland, S. (2011)Numerous studies have suggested that the toxicity of organic compounds containing at least one carboxylic acid group and broadly classified as "naphthenic acids", is of environmental concern. For example, the acute toxicity ...
Compositional heterogeneity may limit the usefulness of some commercial naphthenic acids for toxicity assaysWest, C.; Jones, D.; Scarlett, Alan; Rowland, S. (2011)Naphthenic acids are considered variously as monocarboxylic acids fitting the formula C nH 2n+zO 2 (where z is a zero or negative even integer), as only alicyclic (i.e. non-aromatic) monocarboxylic acids fitting this ...