Reinforcement selection for deep and high-stress tunnels at preliminary design stages using ground demand and support capacity approach
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Underground mining is going to be deeper gradually because near surface resources are going to be depleted. Therefore, risk of seismic events in underground mines is escalating. Additionally, existence of the large ratio of horizontal to vertical stress, could be a potential reason for high-stress condition and occurrence of dynamic activities. Depending on various parameters such as the level of induced stress, rock properties, etc., ground demand changes and it is difficult to estimate. On the other hand, under seismic condition, energy dissipation and deformation capacity of supports is the most important factors, however, rock support performance factors in dynamic conditions are still under investigation. Expanding the knowledge of reinforcement behaviour and capacity, specifically that of the rockbolt as a primary element in seismic conditions, would help to develop a suitable, safe and economic support design. This paper contains various methods to estimate ground demand including the intact rock properties approach, failure thickness and ejection velocity estimation, and rockburst damage potential method. It also covers measurement methods of rockbolts energy dissipation capacities such as drop test, blasting simulating, back calculation and momentum transfer measurement methods. A large-scale dynamic test rig is also explained. Based on the findings, a table and a graph to show the applicable range of each type of rockbolts were presented. Suitable rockbolt types for various ground energy demand and deformation capacity range were categorised in the table and the graph. The presented support selection method facilitates the selection of a suitable reinforcement system at the preliminary stages of design and guides the designer to adjust the support reinforcement system based on observed ground and support reaction.
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