Satellite-clock modeling in single-frequency PPP-RTK processing
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This material may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the American Society of Civil Engineers. This material may be found at https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)SU.1943-5428.0000252
The real-time kinematic precise point positioning (PPP-RTK) technique enables integer ambiguity resolution by providing singlereceiver users with information on the satellite phase biases next to the standard PPP corrections. Using undifferenced and uncombined observations, rank deficiencies existing in the design matrix need to be eliminated to formestimable parameters. In this contribution, the estimability of the parameters was studied in single-frequency ionosphere-weighted scenario, given a dynamic satellite-clock model in the network Kalman filter. In case of latency of the network corrections, the estimable satellite clocks, satellite phase biases, and ionospheric delays need to be predicted over short time spans. With and without satellite-clock models incorporated in the network Kalman filter, different approaches were used to predict the network corrections. This contribution shows how the predicted network corrections responded to the presence and absence of satellite-clock models. These differences in the predicted network corrections were also reflected in the user positioning results. Using three different 1-Hz global positioning system (GPS) single-frequency data sets, two user stations in one small-scale network were used to compute the positioning results, applying predicted network corrections. The latency of the network products ranges from 3 to 10 s. It was observed that applying strong satellite-clock constraints in the network Kalman filter (i.e., with the process noise of 1 or 0.5mm per square root of second) reduced the root-mean squares (RMS) of the user positioning results to centimeters in the horizontal directions and decimeters in the vertical direction for latencies larger than 6 s, compared to the cases without a satellite-clock model.
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