Emission estimates of particulate matter (PM) and trace gases (SO<inf>2</inf>, NO and NO<inf>2</inf>) from biomass fuels used in rural sector of Indo-Gangetic Plain, India
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In this paper, we present the experimentally determined emission factors and emission estimates of particulate matter (PM), SO 2, NO and NO 2 emitted from biomass fuels used as energy in rural area of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), India. Biomass fuel samples were collected at district level from this region. The burning of the collected biomass fuels is performed by using the modified dilution sampler based on studies done by Venkataraman et al. (2005). In this study, the emission factor represents the total period of burning including pyrolysis, flaming and smoldering. The average emission factor of PM from dung cake, fuel-wood and crop residue over Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand and Bihar are estimated as 16.26 ± 2.29 g kg -1 , 4.34 ± 1.06 g kg -1 and 7.54 ± 4.17 g kg -1 respectively. Similarly, the average emission factor of SO 2 , NO and NO 2 from dung cake, fuel-wood and crop residue over this region are also determined (SO 2 : 0.28 ± 0.09 g kg -1 , 0.26 ± 0.10 g kg -1 and 0.27 ± 0.11 g kg -1 , NO: 0.27 ± 0.21 g kg -1 , 0.41 ± 0.25 g kg -1 and 0.54 ± 0.50 g kg -1 and NO 2 : 0.31 ± 0.23 g kg -1 , 0.35 ± 0.28 g kg -1 and 0.54 ± 0.47 g kg -1 respectively). The emission of PM, SO 2 , NO and NO 2 from biomass fuels used as energy in rural household over, IGP are also estimated in this paper. The result shows the regional emission inventory from Indian scenario with spatial variability. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
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