Hurdles and opportunities for landscape-scale restoration
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A priority outcome from the 2012 United Nations Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development (1) was the target to restore, by 2020, 150 million ha of disturbed and degraded land globally (2). An initiative of this scale is estimated to cost U.S. $18 billion per year and to provide U.S. $84 billion per year to the global economy (2). Although such initiatives have transformative potential because of their scope and backing, they require technology and knowledge capacity to deliver proven, scalable restoration (3). Restoration processes must achieve the greatest value for money, as far as socioeconomic and biodiversity conservation outcomes, while avoiding costly and simplistic plantings (4).
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Gann, G.D.; McDonald, Tein ; Walder, B.; Aronson, J.; Nelson, C.R.; Jonson, J.; Hallett, J.G.; Eisenberg, C.; Guariguata, M.R.; Liu, J.; Hua, F.; Echeverría, C.; Gonzales, E.; Shaw, N.; Decleer, K.; Dixon, Kingsley (2019)EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Ecological restoration, when implemented effectively and sustainably, contributes to protecting biodiversity; improving human health and wellbeing; increasing food and water security; delivering goods, ...
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A framework for the practical science necessary to restore sustainable, resilient, and biodiverse ecosystemsMiller, B.; Sinclair, E.; Menz, M.; Elliott, C.; Bunn, E.; Commander, L.; Dalziell, E.; David, E.; Davis, B.; Erickson, T.; Golos, P.; Krauss, S.; Lewandrowski, W.; Mayence, C.; Merino-Martín, L.; Merritt, D.; Nevill, Paul; Phillips, R.; Ritchie, A.; Ruoss, S.; Stevens, J. (2016)Demand for restoration of resilient, self-sustaining, and biodiverse natural ecosystems as a conservation measure is increasing globally; however, restoration efforts frequently fail to meet standards appropriate for this ...