A comprehensive review on rheological studies of sludge from various sections of municipal wastewater treatment plants for enhancement of process performance
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Large quantities of sludge is generated from different sections of a wastewater treatment plant operation. Sludge can be a solid, semisolid or liquid muddy residual material. Understanding the flow behaviour and rheological properties of sewage sludge at different sections of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is important for the design of pumping system, mixing, hydrodynamics and mass transfer rates of various sludge treatment units, optimization of conditioning dose and for sustainable sludge management. The current article provides a comprehensive review on up to date literature information on rheological behaviour of raw primary sludge, excess activated sludge, thickened excess activated sludge, mixture of raw primary and thickened excess activated sludge (mixed sludge), digested sludge, and biosolid under the influence of different operating parameters and their impacts on process performance. The influences of various process parameters such as solid concentration, temperature, pH, floc particle size, primary to secondary sludge mixing ratio, aging and conditioning agent doses on the rheological behaviour of sludge from different treatment units of WWTPs are critically analysed here. Yield stress was reported to increase with increasing solid concentration for all types of sludge whereas viscosity showed a decreasing trend with decreasing total solid concentration and percentage of thickened excess activated sludge in the mixture. Temperature showed an inverse relationship with yield stress and viscosity. Viscosity was reported to be decreased with decrease in pH. The effect of various conditioning agents on the rheological behaviour of sludge are also discussed here. The applicability and practical significance of various rheological models such as Bingham, Power Law (Ostwald), Herschel-Bulkley, Casson, Sisko, Careau, and Cross models to experimental rheological characteristics of various sludges were presented here. The reported results on various rheological parameters such as shear stress, yield stress, flow index, infinite, zero-rate viscosity, and flow consistency index of different sludge types obtained from the best fitted model were also compiled here. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed and few suggestions for future research direction are proposed.
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Rheological characteristics of mixture of raw primary and thickened excess activated sludge: impact of mixing ratio, solid concentration, temperature and sludge ageHong, Eugene; Yeneneh, Anteneh; Sen, Tushar; Ang, Ming; Kayaalp, A.; Kayaalp, M. (2015)Wastewater treatment process generates large quantities of sludge from different operational steps. The rheological behaviour of sewage sludge at different steps of wastewater treatment plant is useful for the design, ...
Rheological characteristics of mixture of raw primary and thickened excess activated sludge: impact of mixing ratio, solid concentration, temperature and sludge ageHONG, E.; Yeneneh, A.; Sen, Tushar; Ang, H.; Kayaalp, A.; Kayaalp, M. (2015)Wastewater treatment process generates large quantities of sludge from different operational steps. The rheological behaviour of sewage sludge at different steps of wastewater treatment plant is useful for the design, ...
Yeneneh, Anteneh Mesfin; Sen, Tushar; Ang, Ha Ming; Kayaalp, A.; Kayaalp, N M. (2014)Sewage sludge is categorised under the class of non-Newtonian fluids and it manifests shear thinning behaviour. The flow patterns and rheology of sludge in wastewater treatment plants particularly before and after the ...