The Role of Leader Support in Facilitating Proactive Work Behavior: A Perspective From Attachment Theory
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Researchers have proposed that leader support helps employees behave proactively at work. Leader support can facilitate the opportunities for employees to bring about change, as well as their motivation to do so. Nevertheless, empirical studies have shown mixed effects of leader support on employees’ proactive behavior. In this study, to reconcile the inconsistent findings on the impact of leader support on employees’ proactive behavior, the authors consider the content, mediating mechanisms, and boundary conditions of leader support in shaping employees’ proactive behavior. On the basis of attachment theory, the authors propose that secure-base support from leaders (support in the form of leader availability, encouragement, and noninterference) positively predicts employees’ proactive work behavior by increasing their role breadth self-efficacy and autonomous motivation. These hypotheses are supported in an online-survey sample from U.S. participants (N = 138) and a sample from a large gas and oil company in China (N = 212). The authors further propose that the beneficial effects of secure-base support from leaders are more prominent for individuals with lower attachment security. This hypothesis was also supported: Individuals high in attachment anxiety especially benefited from leader secure-base support in terms of its effect on role breadth self-efficacy; whereas those who are high in attachment avoidance especially benefited from leader secure-base support in terms of its effect on autonomous motivation. Our study helps explain how leaders’ support motivates employees’ proactive behavior, particularly for those individuals who have lower attachment security.
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Strauss, K.; Griffin, Mark; Parker, S.; Mason, C. (2015)© 2013, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Purpose: The purpose was to investigate how job satisfaction and adaptivity influence proactivity over time. Proactivity describes employees’ efforts to initiate positive ...
Strauss, K.; Parker, Sharon (2018)A growing body of evidence has linked proactivity at work to positive outcomes. Yet little research to date has investigated whether employees’ proactive behavior in organizations can be facilitated through training and ...
When does proactivity have a cost? Motivation at work moderates the effects of proactive work behavior on employee job strainStrauss, K.; Parker, Sharon; O'Shea, D. (2017)The literature on proactivity has focused primarily on its positive performance outcomes. However, the effects of proactive behavior on employees’ well-being are relatively unknown. We theorize that when an individuals’ ...