Delivery of therapeutics for deep-seated ocular conditions – status quo
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Objectives: There is a need for research into designing effective pharmaceutical systems for delivering therapeutic drugs to the posterior of the eye for glaucoma-related pathology, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, macular oedema, retinitis and choroiditis. Conventionally, eye drops have been extensively utilised for topical drug delivery to the anterior segment of the eye, but are less effective for delivery of therapeutics to the back of the eye due to significant barriers hampering drug penetration into the target intraocular tissue. This review explores some of the current and novel delivery systems employed to deliver therapeutics to the back of the eye such as those using liposomes, ocular implants, in situ gels, and nanoparticles, and how they can overcome some of these limitations. Key findings: Issues such as blinking, precorneal fluid drainage, tear dilution and turnover, conjunctiva and nasal drug absorption, the corneal epithelium, vitreous drug clearance, and the blood–ocular barriers are reviewed and discussed. Summary: Further studies are needed to address their shortcomings such as drug compatibility and stability, economic viability and patient compliance.
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