A study of cut blasting for one-step raise excavation based on numerical simulation and field blast tests
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Over the past several decades, raise excavation has been widely employed in underground mining, civil engineering and military engineering. One-step raise excavation with burn cuts, where all the boreholes are pre-drilled and detonated at one time and no workers need to be underneath the freshly blasted and dangerous ground, is an important and promising method in raise excavation. Cut parameters, especially the parameters of prime cut which used empty hole as a free surface and swelling space, have significant influence on the effect of raise formed. In this study, two small-scale experimental methods, spiral hole spacing method and observation hole method, are designed to determine the prime cut parameters such as hole spacing (L), stemming length (Ls1, Ls2) and air deck length (La) which are normally determined by empirical formula. In order to study the feasibility of the two methods, numerical analysis and experimental tests are conducted in V zone of Sandaozhuang molybdenum mine (SMM), in which there are large numbers of underground goafs need to be controlled by filled raise. The Riedel–Hiermaier–Thoma (RHT) material model, which considers compression damage and tension damage effect under blasting loading, is employed in the LS-DYNA software to study the rock damage zone. Meanwhile, the field tests are carried out according to the two small-scale experimental methods. The comparison results show that the damage zone of numerical simulation has a good agreement with the experimental data. Further, the optimal prime cut parameters obtained from experimental tests are applied in one-step filled-raise excavation, and a 23 m raise that meets the design requirements is formed through the proposed technology. The results indicate that these cut parameters determined by the small-scale experiments are suited for one-step raise excavation. This study can provide two simple field experiments to determine the important prime cut parameters of one-step raise excavation.
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