The emergence of team resilience: A multilevel conceptual model of facilitating factors
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With empirical research on team resilience on the rise, there is a need for an integrative conceptual model that delineates the essential elements of this concept and offers a heuristic for the integration of findings across studies. To address this need, we propose a multilevel model of team resilience that originates in the resources of individual team members and emerges as a team-level construct through dynamic person–situation interactions that are triggered by adverse events. In so doing, we define team resilience as an emergent outcome characterized by the trajectory of a team's functioning, following adversity exposure, as one that is largely unaffected or returns to normal levels after some degree of deterioration in functioning. This conceptual model offers a departure point for future work on team resilience and reinforces the need to incorporate inputs and process mechanisms inherent within dynamic interactions among individual members of a team. Of particular, importance is the examination of these inputs, process mechanisms and emergent states, and outcomes over time, and in the context of task demands, objectives, and adverse events. Practitioner points: Team resilience as a dynamic, multilevel phenomenon requires clarity on the individual- and team-level factors that foster its emergence within occupational and organizational settings. An understanding of the nature (e.g., timing, chronicity) of adverse events is key to studying and intervening to foster team resilience within occupational and organizational settings.
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