Dissecting the physiology and pathophysiology of glucagon-like peptide-1
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Copyright © 2018 Paternoster and Falasca. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. An aging world population exposed to a sedentary life style is currently plagued by chronic metabolic diseases, such as type-2 diabetes, that are spreading worldwide at an unprecedented rate. One of the most promising pharmacological approaches for the management of type 2 diabetes takes advantage of the peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) under the form of protease resistant mimetics, and DPP-IV inhibitors. Despite the improved quality of life, long-term treatments with these new classes of drugs are riddled with serious and life-threatening side-effects, with no overall cure of the disease. New evidence is shedding more light over the complex physiology of GLP-1 in health and metabolic diseases. Herein, we discuss the most recent advancements in the biology of gut receptors known to induce the secretion of GLP-1, to bridge the multiple gaps into our understanding of its physiology and pathology.